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Commonly used combina- *Because of errors made with the abbreviations safe 160mg kamagra super erectile dysfunction blood pressure, some authorities recommend spelling out the site (eg buy kamagra super 160 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction drugs with the least side effects, right eye). CHAPTER 3 ADMINISTERING MEDICATIONS 33 TABLE 3–2 Drug Dosage Forms Dosage Forms and Their Routes of Administration Characteristics Considerations/Precautions Tablets Regular: PO, GI tube (crushed • Contain active drug plus binders, dyes, preservatives 8 oz of water recommended when taken orally, to and mixed with water) • Dissolve in gastric fluids promote dissolution and absorption Chewable: PO Colorful and flavored, mainly for young children who Colors and flavors appeal to children; keep out of are unable to swallow or who refuse regular tablets reach to avoid accidental overdose. Enteric coated: PO Dissolve in small intestine rather than stomach; Do not crush; instruct clients not to chew or crush. Solutions Oral: PO, GI tube • Absorbed rapidly because they do not need to be Use of appropriate measuring devices and accurate dissolved measurement are extremely important. Parenteral: IV, IM SC, • Medications and all administration devices must Use of appropriate equipment (eg, needles, syringes, intradermal be sterile IV administration sets) and accurate measurement • IV produces rapid effects; SC is used mainly for in- are extremely important. Insulin syringes should sulin and heparin; IM is used for only a few drugs; always be used for insulin and tuberculin syringes intradermal is used mainly to inject skin test ma- are recommended for measuring small amounts of terial rather than therapeutic drugs. Suspensions PO, SC (NPH and • These are particles of active drug suspended in Drug particles settle to the bottom on standing. If Lente insulins) a liquid; the liquid must be rotated or shaken not remixed, the liquid vehicle is given rather than before measuring a dose. Dermatologic Creams, Lotions, Ointments Topically to skin • Most are formulated for minimal absorption Formulations vary with intended uses and are not through skin and local effects at the site of appli- interchangeable. Solutions and Powders for • Oral inhalations are used mainly for asthma; nasal Several research studies indicate that patients often Oral or Nasal Inhalation, sprays for nasal allergies (allergic rhinitis) do not use MDIs correctly and sometimes are in- Including Metered Dose • Effective with less systemic effect than oral drugs correctly taught by health care providers. Correct Inhalers (MDIs) • Deliver a specified dose per inhalation use is essential to obtaining therapeutic effects and avoiding adverse effects. Eye Solutions and Ointments • Should be sterile Can be systemically absorbed and cause systemic • Most are packaged in small amounts, to be used adverse effects by a single patient Throat Lozenges • Used for cough and sore throat Ear Solutions • Used mainly for ear infections (continued) 34 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO DRUG THERAPY TABLE 3–2 Drug Dosage Forms (continued) Dosage Forms and Their Routes of Administration Characteristics Considerations/Precautions Vaginal Creams and • Formulated for insertion into the vagina Suppositories • Commonly used to treat vaginal infections Rectal Suppositories • Formulated for insertion into the rectum Effects somewhat unpredictable because absorption and Enemas • Suppositories may be used to administer seda- is erratic tives, analgesics, laxatives • Medicated enemas are used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (eg, ulcerative colitis) PO, oral; GI, gastrointestinal; IV, intravenous; IM, intramuscular; SC, subcutaneous. CALCULATING DRUG DOSAGES animal tests (ie, the amount of drug required to produce a particular response). For ex- When calculating drug doses, the importance of accuracy ample, concentrations of insulin and heparin are both ex- cannot be overemphasized. Accuracy requires basic skills in pressed in units, but there is no relation between a unit of mathematics, knowledge of common units of measurement, insulin and a unit of heparin. These drugs are usually ordered and methods of using data in performing calculations. Milliequivalents express the ionic ac- The most commonly used system of measurement is the met- tivity of a drug. Drugs such as potassium chloride are ordered ric system, in which the meter is used for linear measure, the and labeled in the number of milliequivalents per dose, tablet, gram for weight, and the liter for volume. The apothecary system, now obsolete and rarely used, has units called grains, minims, drams, ounces, pounds, pints, Mathematical Calculations and quarts. The household system, with units of drops, tea- spoons, tablespoons, and cups, is infrequently used in health Most drug orders and labels are expressed in metric units of care agencies but may be used at home. If the amount specified in the order is the same alent measurements within and among these systems. Equiv- as that on the drug label, no calculations are required, and alents are approximate. For example, if A few drugs are ordered and measured in terms of units the order reads ibuprofen 400 mg PO and the drug label or milliequivalents (mEq). Units express biologic activity in reads ibuprofen 400 mg per tablet, it is clear that one tablet is to be given. What happens if the order calls for a 400-mg dose and 200-mg tablets are available? The question is, How many TABLE 3–3 Equivalents 200-mg tablets are needed to give a dose of 400 mg? This is a simple example that also can be 1 mL = 1 cc = 15 or 16 minims = 15 or 16 drops used to illustrate mathematical calculations. This problem 4 or 5 mL = 1 fluid dram = 1 tsp can be solved by several acceptable methods; the following 60 or 65 mg = 1 gr 30 or 32 mg = 1/2 gr formula is presented because of its relative simplicity for stu- 30 g = 30 mL = 1 oz = 2 tbsp dents lacking a more familiar method. V = unit (one tablet, here) CHAPTER 3 ADMINISTERING MEDICATIONS 35 400 mg X ablett 3. Order: 4 mg IV = Label: 10 mg/mL 200 mg 1 tablet Cross multiply: 4 mg X mL = 200X = 400 10 mg 1 mL 10X = 4 400 X = = 2 tablets 200 4 X = = 04. The desired or ordered dose and the available or label dose 10,000X = 5000 must be in the same units of measurement.

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Each point was stimulated with the laser for five min- utes buy generic kamagra super 160mg line erectile dysfunction va disability, and one treatment lasted around 20 minutes 160 mg kamagra super overnight delivery erectile dysfunction injection dosage. This treatment was given one time per day, and 10 days equaled one course of treatment. An interval of 7-10 days was given between each suc- cessive course of treatment. Study outcomes: The following table shows a comparison of the outcomes between the two groups. GROUP CURED MARKED IMPROVEMENT NO TOTAL IMPROVEMENT IMPROVEMENT TREATMENT 18 (30%) 20 (33. MARKED NO PATTERN CURED IMPROVEMENT IMPROVEMENT IMPROVEMENT LOWER ORIGIN VACUITY COLD 6 (18. Treatment method: The main acupoints used in this protocol were: Guan Yuan (CV 4) Shen Shu (Bl 23) San Yin Jiao (Sp 6) Auxiliary points consisted of: Zhong Ji (CV 3) Zu San Li (St 36) Each point was stimulated with a laser for five minutes, and 3-4 points were chosen each time. One treatment was given per day, and 10 treatments equaled one course of treatment. Study outcomes: Thirty-eight cases (76%) were cured, 11 cases (22%) markedly improved, and one case did not improve. From The Treatment of 50 Cases of Pediatric Enuresis with Laser Therapy by Zhou Xiao-ge, Shang Hai Zhong Yi Yao Za Zhi (Shanghai Journal of Chinese Medicine & Medicinals), 1996, #9, p. The patients in this group were between the ages of 4-15 years old, with an Chinese Research on the Treatment of Pediatric Enuresis 167 average age of 6. The course of disease in this group was between 1-12 years, with an average disease duration of 2. The other group was an acupuncture group of 36 cases, 26 males and 10 females. The patients in this group were between the ages of 6-13 years old, with an average age of 8. The course of disease in this group was between 3-10 years, with an average length of 3. Treatment method: All members of the laser group were treated with either 10 megaWatts or 20 megaWatts performed on one of the following two groups of acupoints: A. Shen Shu (Bl 23), Pang Guang Shu (Bl 28), and Tai Xi (Ki 3) One group was chosen each time, and each point was stimulated for 10 minutes. All members of the acupuncture group were treated at the same points above. Supplementation method was used, and the nee- dles were retained for 30 minutes. In addition, press magnets were placed on the following ear acupuncture points: Bladder Kidney Sympathetic Subcortex In both groups, treatment was given every other day or three times per week. After one week of treatment, the other group of points were used, and 10 treatments equaled one course of therapy. Study outcomes: In laser group #1 treated with 20 megaWatts, 15 cases were cured, five cases markedly improved, three cases improved, and two cases had no improvement. In laser group #2 treated with 10 megaWatts, five cases were cured, seven cases were markedly improved, five cases improved, and eight cases had no improve- 168 Treating Pediatric Bed-wetting with Acupuncture & Chinese Medicine ment. In the acupuncture group, 18 cases were cured, nine cases were markedly improved, three cases improved, and six cases had no improvement. From The Treatment of Occult Spina Bifida Pediatric Enuresis With Laser by Zhu Sheng-quan et al. Patients had to have enuresis during sleep at night and/or during the day at least one time per week. Medical exami- nations had to have eliminated all organic causes of enuresis. X- rays had to have demonstrated that the child had occult spina bifi- da.

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Because these cells re- ceive synaptic endings from multiple auditory nerve fibers (Oertel generic 160 mg kamagra super overnight delivery erectile dysfunction self treatment, 1999) kamagra super 160mg erectile dysfunction caffeine, they receive multiple estimates of the onset time of a sound or other auditory event. Following a hyperpolarizing step, there is a rebound accompanied by an action potential. After hyperpolarization, there is no overshoot (adapted from Manis and Marx, 1991). The out- put of the bushy cells is subsequently used for tasks that require fine timing analysis, including the measurement of phase di¤erences between low-frequency sounds at the two ears. However, there are many other neurons whose processing depends on the in- teraction of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. One of the simplest examples is provided by neurons in the pathway for comparison of sound at the two ears. Interaction of Synaptic Excitation and Inhibition Leading to Simple Computation Inputs from the two cochlear nuclei first come together at the superior olivary com- plex, located in the lower brainstem (figure 4. The lateral superior olive (LSO) is one component of the pathway that computes the location of a sound source based on a comparison of the physical properties of the sound that reaches the two ears. Each neuron in the LSO receives excitatory input directly from the ipsilateral coch- lear nucleus. It also receives inhibitory input indirectly from the contralateral coch- lear nucleus via a synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), a group of glycinergic neurons with properties similar to those of bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus (Brew and Forsythe, 1994). Brain Parts on Multiple Scales 77 100 50 0 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Contra>lpsi lpsi>Contra ILD dB Figure 4. The left anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) contributes ipsilaterally evoked excitatory input to the left LSO. The right cochlear nucleus provides contralateral exci- tatory input to the left medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), which in turn provides inhibitory input to the left LSO. To facilitate comparison among neu- rons, the response magnitude is normalized to the maximal response. The response of all of the neurons is maximal when the ipsilateral sound is louder than the contralateral one. As the ILD approaches zero (equal sound amplitude at the two ears), the response of all the neurons declines, starting at di¤erent ILDs, but with similar slopes. As a result, there is an interaural level di¤erence (ILD) that varies from zero (both sides equal) when the sound source is straight ahead, to maximal (ipsi louder than contra) when the sound source is located 90 degrees to the right or left. Consequently, a sound source 90 degrees to the right provides strong ex- citation and weak inhibition to a neuron in the right LSO, so the neuron will re- spond. When the sound source is straight ahead, the sound level at the two ears is equal, so excitation will equal inhibition and the neuron will respond weakly or not respond. When the sound source is anywhere on the left, then inhibition to the right LSO will exceed excitation, and the neuron will not respond. In reality, di¤erent LSO neurons appear to have slightly di¤erent weights of exci- tation and inhibition. This can be seen by plotting the responses of LSO neurons as a function of ILD (figure 4. LSO neurons typically have dynamic ranges that correspond to a range of ILDs produced by sound sources within the 45-degree space just ipsilateral to the midline. Each LSO neuron functions as a computational device that provides an output proportional to the location of a sound source relative to the midline, but the response of each neuron declines over a slightly di¤erent range of ILDs. The fundamental mechanism by which an LSO neuron performs its computation is quite straightforward since it essentially involves only the algebraic summation of simultaneous excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Neurons that act as analyzers of the temporal structure of sound, duration, for example, need an added temporal di- mension in their processing. The convergence of inputs from multiple sources at the midbrain provides an ideal substrate for a temporal analysis of sound. Complex, Multicomponent Computation and Duration Tuning Neurons in the midbrain auditory center, the inferior colliculus, receive direct projec- tions from the cochlear nucleus as well as from subsequent stages of processing, including the cell groups of the superior olivary complex and the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (figure 4. Because each stage of processing introduces a time delay of a millisecond or more, even a brief stimulus such as a click that lasts a fraction of a millisecond can cause a cell in the IC to receive a complex series of excitatory and inhibitory inputs that extend over many tens of milliseconds (e. Since each input neuron has its own sensitivity profile and repertoire of response properties, the magnitude and time course of synaptic in- put from each source will vary systematically, but in a di¤erent pattern, in response Brain Parts on Multiple Scales 79 to parametric changes in the auditory stimulus. This integrative function is especially obvious in intracellular recordings in which it is possible to follow the changes in synaptic inputs that occur as a stimulus parameter is varied (e. Many neurons in the IC exhibit bandpass tuning to sound duration (figure 4.

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Cutaneous facilitation of transmission in reflex pathways from Ib afferents Cutaneous facilitation of homonymous Ib inhibition of quadriceps has been observed However proven kamagra super 160 mg female erectile dysfunction drugs, the most frequently observed effect of during strong contractions of quadriceps low-threshold cutaneous volleys is facilitation of transmission in the pathway of Ib inhibition to The facilitation of the quadriceps H reflex produced motoneurones purchase kamagra super 160 mg mastercard erectile dysfunction female doctor. The inhibition Cutaneous facilitation at rest during contraction is the result of cutaneous facilita- Even at rest, cutaneous facilitation of Ib inhibition to tionofIbinhibitionactivatedbythetestvolleyforthe knee muscle motoneurones follows the initial cuta- quadriceps H reflex (Marchand-Pauvert et al. This effect is potent from gas- Such an inhibition of the quadriceps H reflex dur- trocnemius medialis to biceps and for homonymous ing quadriceps contraction has not been observed quadriceps group I inhibition (Pierrot-Deseilligny after stimulation of the sural nerve or of the foot et al. Cutaneous facilitation of gastrocnemius medialis-induced Ib inhibition during voluntary Cutaneous facilitation of transmission contractions of triceps surae in Ib pathways has also been observed in the upper limb Gastrocnemius medialis-induced Ib inhibition to soleus is decreased with respect to rest during The initial radial-induced inhibition of the FCR H gastrocnemius-soleus voluntary contractions (see reflex is curtailed by a trend to facilitation attributed pp. This cutaneous facil- lation in various situations, and this suggests that itation of gastrocnemius medialis-induced Ib inhi- interneurones transmitting Ib inhibition to a given bition to soleus and quadriceps has been disclosed motoneurone pool are organised in subpopulations, only when (i) the voluntary contraction involves the which may be differentially selected in different triceps surae, and (ii) the cutaneous stimulation is tasks, through descending control and mutual inhi- applied to the anterior part of the foot sole (grey area bitionofIbinterneurones. The effects of the triceps surae con- neous facilitation of Ib inhibition might be used to tractionprobablyresultfromdescendingfacilitation curtail an exploratory movement (see pp. Recurrent inhi- by joint afferents bition produced by the discharge of the unit could not suppress the discharge of that same unit, and So far, the effects of joint afferents have only been aRenshaw origin of the inhibition is unlikely. Gat- investigated on the pathways of Ib inhibition to ing of the femoral volley is therefore likely, and this is quadriceps motoneurones. Similar effects by joint afferents were observed with joint afferents from the ankle Conditioning stimulation can be applied to the lat- travelling in the deep peroneal nerve (Chapter 1, eral articular nerve of the knee joint, which con- pp. Stimulation of joint afferents facilitates the Facilitation of heteronymous Ib inhibition quadricepsHreflexduringweakquadricepscontrac- by joint afferents tions, but this can be reversed to inhibition during The effects of increased pressure in the knee joint strong contractions (Fig. However, during caused by intra-articular infusion of saline (indu- strong contractions, the same joint afferent volley cing no sensation of pain) have been investigated facilitates the on-going voluntary EMG recorded on the quadriceps H reflex (Iles, Stokes & Young, in the quadriceps at corresponding central delays 1990). The facilitation of the on-going EMG the quadriceps H reflex both at rest and during probably results from facilitation of motoneurones quadriceps contractions. Joint distension also pro- by joint afferents, as has been described in the cat duces spatial facilitation of Ib inhibition of the after rubral stimulation (Hongo, Jankowska & Lund- quadriceps H reflex from group I afferents in the berg, 1969; sketch in Fig. Inhibition of the H reflex can between the effects on the EMG and H reflex dur- therefore be attributed to facilitation by knee joint ing strong quadriceps contractions is explained by afferents of interneurones mediating Ib inhibition the existence of an inhibitory mechanism gating the to quadriceps motoneurones. Investigations per- formed on the PSTHs of single units have allowed Conclusions this mechanism to be defined. This facilitation of Ib inhi- voluntarily active vastus lateralis unit was reduced bition could play a role in the relaxation of a mus- when it was preceded by an articular volley, which cle when joint afferents are activated in hyperflexion by itself did not modify the firing probability of the or-extension(seep. The difference between the effect on com- interneurones by joint afferents could also have a bined stimulation and the sum of effects of separate protective role in preventing excessive contraction 264 Ib pathways Ib IN 8 (a) (d ) FN 0. Facilitation of autogenetic Ib inhibition of quadriceps by knee joint afferents. Ib and Ia afferents from quadriceps (Q) and knee joint afferents converge onto common Ib interneurones (INs) projecting onto Q motoneurones (MN). There is also a pathway mediating joint afferent excitation of MNs (revealed after rubral stimulation in the cat). Note the lack of suppression in the initial bins of the FN group I excitation (i. Organisation and pattern of connections 265 from damaging the ligaments and capsule of the Vestibular facilitation of Ib inhibition joint. The finding that the facilitation of autogenetic Spatialinteractionhasalsobeenfoundbetweengas- Ib inhibition of quadriceps motoneurones by knee trocnemius medialis-induced Ib inhibition and the joint afferents is seen only during strong quadriceps inhibition of the soleus H reflex evoked by galvanic contractions(cf. Here also, the inter- action is facilitatory when the inhibitions are weak, Effects from nociceptive afferents but reverses to occlusion when they are strong, pro- vidingevidenceforconvergenceofvestibularsignals Tonic activation of nociceptors has been shown onto interneurones mediating Ib inhibition. These changes increase in parallel interneurones with the sensation of pain. Opposite changes have been observed from the skin (dorsal surface of the In the above sections, multiple peripheral and foot) and muscle (extensor digitorum brevis): stimu- descendinginputshavebeenshowntoproducefacil- lationofnociceptivecutaneousafferentsincreasesIb itation or inhibition of interneurones mediating Ib inhibition, whereas stimulation of nociceptive mus- inhibition to motoneurones. The extent to which cle afferents decreases it (Rossi & Decchi, 1995, 1997; different inputs converge on the same subpopu- Rossi et al. Given that in the cat nociceptive lations of interneurones has been approached by afferentscanexciteandinhibitIbinterneurones(see activating Ib inhibitory interneurones to quadriceps Jankowska, 1992) and alter presynaptic inhibition of motoneurones by a femoral volley and combining Ia and Ib afferents (see Rudomin & Schmidt, 1999), this homonymous group I volley with various other the exact mechanism of these changes is difficult to inputs. Descending effects Strong contractions Corticospinal excitation During strong contractions, cutaneous and joint Spatial interactions have been found between cor- afferents facilitate the transmission of homony- tically evoked and Ib inhibitions of the soleus H mous Ib inhibition of quadriceps motoneurones (cf.

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